Feed Lot

APR-MAY 2018

Feedlots and cow/calf operations in the beef industry who feed 500 or more has annually on grains and concentrates; maintain 500 or more beef cows; backgrounder, stocker/grower, preconditioner; veterinarian, nutritionist, consultant

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6 FEED•LOT April/May 2018 FEEDLOT FOCUS compared with conventional corn. From the first two experiments, the conclusion was made that it would be economical for cattle feeders to take advantage of the improve- ment in feed efficiency by feeding Enogen corn. All of the previous research con- ducted by UNL evaluated Enogen as only dry-rolled corn, so a finish- ing trial was conducted to deter- mine the effect of Enogen corn pro- cessed as either dry-rolled corn or high-moisture corn (HMC) fed with either 18% modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) or 35% Sweet Bran. Cattle fed Enogen DRC with MDGS had a 3.9% improvement in feed efficiency compared with conventional corn; however, the difference was only 2.1% when pro- cessed as HMC. Cattle fed Enogen DRC with Sweet Bran had a 1.5% improvement in feed efficiency compared with conventional corn; however, a decrease of 2.1% was observed when processed as HMC. The improvement in feed efficiency in cattle fed Enogen DRC agrees with previous research, although the magnitude of improvement was not as high. Ruminal starch diges- tion is approximately 77% for DRC as compared to approximately 90% for HMC, while total tract starch digestion is approximately 95% for DRC as compared to approximately 98% for HMC. The starch digestibil- ity values for HMC likely explain why there was not an improvement in feed efficiency for Enogen HMC. Since starch digestion is near 100%, added alpha amylase does not make much of a contribution. Approximately 40 percent of U.S. corn goes to producing etha- nol, which led Syngenta to devel- op a new corn hybrid under their Golden Harvest brand, called Eno- gen corn enzyme technology. The Enogen technology centers on an alpha amylase enzyme genetically engineered into the corn kernel. Enogen corn reduces the need for added alpha amylase in the ethanol production process, reducing cost and improving efficiency for the ethanol plant. Enogen does come with one major drawback, it cannot enter the non-ethanol food chain. Thus, if there are production or transpor- tation issues at or after harvest and the corn cannot be delivered to an ethanol plant, producers need an outlet for the product. With the need for an alternative outlet, in- terest has focused on using Enogen corn as an ingredient in cattle ra- tions. Compared to non-ruminants, ruminant animal's saliva does not contain alpha amylase and levels in the small intestine are relatively low, so cattle themselves are not very good at digesting corn; how- ever, microbes in the rumen digest corn efficiently. The addition of alpha amylase in the Enogen corn kernel helps the ruminant animal digest corn more efficiently. Early research done by Iowa State University fed cattle rations containing a corn hybrid that ex- presses a thermotolerant alpha amylase at 0, 10, and 20% of dietary dry matter to determine perfor- mance responses in feedlot cattle fed different concentrations. The researchers concluded that corn genetically modified to contain am- ylase had no effect on performance or carcass characteristics of feedlot steers when fed at 10 or 20% of diet dry matter. Recent research at the Univer- sity of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) was conducted to determine the impact of Enogen corn on growing and finishing beef cattle perfor- mance and carcass characteristics. The objective of the first exper- iment was to compare Enogen corn to commercially available corn grain fed in rations with or without Sweet Bran. Sweet Bran is a patented form of wet corn gluten feed produced by Cargill. Feeding Enogen corn with Sweet Bran in the ration improved average daily gain by 6.2% compared to feeding commercially available corn grain with Sweet Bran. There was no accompanying increase in DMI due to feeding Enogen corn, so feed efficiency was improved by 8.6%. Interestingly, there was little to no difference in any performance measure when Sweet Bran was not a component of the ration. The researchers hypothesized that ruminal acidosis may be masking the positive impacts of feeding Enogen corn when Sweet Bran was not included in the ration; however, further research was needed to confirm that hypothesis. In the second experiment con- ducted by UNL, when wet distill- ers grains were fed with Enogen corn processed as dry-rolled corn (DRC), the researchers observed a 5.4% improvement in feed efficiency Enogen corn and cattle production BY JORDAN BURHOOP, M.S. & DAN LARSON, PH.D. RUMINANT NUTRITIONISTS The cattle feeding industry is based on rations consisting of corn and various byproducts of the corn milling industry. As consultants, we are ever vigilant to changes in feedstuff quality and the effect of new feedstuffs on cattle performance.

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